The Topsham Charter
Wherever you are in Topsham, you’re surrounded by history
Stroll along the Strand to see the Dutch gables; seek out ancient quays and causeways; peep into cobbled courts and explore narrow lanes. Along the way you’ll enjoy stunning views of the Exe Estuary – the living heart of the town.
Two thousand years ago, the Romans visited Topsham, sailing up the river to supply the garrison at Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter). They landed goods, built a small fort and constructed the straight road into Exeter that is still used today.
At some time before 670, a Saxon called Toppa was granted the land by the king, and so it became known as Toppa’s village, or Tops-ham. There is still debate about whether we should pronounce it Top-sham or Top-sam!
In 1300, a grant was given by King Edward I to the Earl of Devon (Hugh de Courtenay) to hold an annual fair and a weekly market, and this Royal Charter elevated Topsham from a village to a town.
The 17th and 18th centuries were the ‘golden’ years. Farmers throughout Devon invested in long-wool sheep and Exeter became the centre of a thriving export trade for woollen cloth. The finished serge was shipped to the continent from its port at Topsham. Visit the Quay to see where the cloth bales were loaded onto ships bound for Holland and elsewhere. Take a walk along Strand to admire the Dutch architecture adopted by local merchants. In Topsham Museum (25 Strand) you can see how the merchants lived, learn more about the town and enjoy a cream tea in the garden.
The Exe Estuary and the Exeter Ship Canal (opened in 1566) were, and still are central to local life. From Topsham Quay, ships set off to fight the Spanish Armada, settle the Americas, trade with the continent or fish for cod off Newfoundland. Smaller boats ferried goods and passengers up, down and across the river, netted salmon and fished for mackerel. From the high churchyard wall, you can see up and down the estuary and imagine how life on the river has changed over the years.
Along the shore, shipbuilders sawed and hammered and while wooden ships ruled, Topsham shipyards were some of the busiest in the country. Forges made anchors and chains, rope-makers twisted hemp, a factory produced specialised nails. During the 18th and 19th centuries, cargo ships for merchants and warships for the Navy were built here. One of these was HMS Terror. Commissioned as a gunboat, the Terror was lost in 1848 during Sir John Franklin’s ill-fated voyage to discover the North-West Passage. At Topsham Museum you can see a model of the ship and learn how it was rediscovered in 2016, following an improbable tip from an Inuit guide.
In the fields, market gardening was big business, and after the railway arrived in 1861, daily goods trucks laden with fruit and vegetables chuffed their way to Covent Garden.
In this working-class environment, there were once 42 pubs and a reputation for rowdiness. As late as the 1990s, local students regarded a pint in each of the ‘Topsham Ten’ as a rite of passage.
Today, Topsham is both a tourist destination and a vibrant all-year-round community.
Two self-guided walks are described in the Topsham Trails leaflet available from the Museum.
Guided walks (run by the Topsham Society) set off from the Holman Way Car Park at 2 p.m. every Wednesday and Saturday afternoon from May to September.
Topsham Museum, housed in a 17th century merchants’ house at 25 Strand, is open from April to October, 2.00-5.00 every day except Tuesdays. It offers a Tea Room, Shop and inviting garden. For more information, click here. https://topshammuseum.org.uk